高山鹽湖的美麗與哀愁 The beauty and sadness of Salinas Grandes in Argentina

2008年8月26日 星期二

鹽,不僅是人類、所有動植物維持正常新陳代謝、保持體液酸鹼平衡、促進光合作用與呼吸作用的重要物質之一,也可用來保存食物、製造消毒劑與營養液的必要元素。
Salt for people, animals and plants is not only the essential substance to keep normal metabolism, to maintain the acid & alkali to be balanced, and to accelerate photosynthesis & cell respiration, but also the necessary element to preserve food, made disinfection and nourishment.

所謂「得鹽者得天下」,歷史上許多統帥、君主都發現一個道理:沒有食鹽的戰爭使人陷於絕望的失敗之役。
What is called “the person who gets salt wins the world”. Many captains and kings in the history found a principle that the war without salt makes people come to a despairing failure battle.

從美國南北戰爭中的「食鹽大戰」,北方聯軍利用斷絕南方的鹽來取得勝戰,因他們認知到“鹽可用於肉類的加工處理,沒有鹽,軍隊就無法生存下去。” 拿破崙征俄之役撤退時,成千上萬法國軍人因缺乏食鹽,不能製造任何消毒劑進行消毒而死去。而遠古的中國在進入戰國時代後,晉國分裂為韓、趙、魏三國,鹽池為魏國所有。在後來的戰國七雄中,楚、趙、燕、齊靠近大海,有海鹽。秦國有來自青海、陜北和四川成都平原的鹽,所以均能保持國力強盛。唯獨只有韓國地處內陸,沒有鹽資源,在政治和經濟上處處受人制約,最後日漸衰敗,最先滅亡。後來魏國失去河東地區,運城鹽池被秦國奪取後,也是一蹶不振。故鹽宛如「黃土地上的白金」,珍貴的成為數千年來兵家必奪之重要資源。
From the America Civil war, the northern allied forces used cutting off the salt supply of the south to win the war, it was because they were aware that “Without salt, soldiers can not do meat process and then armies can not survive.” During the time Napoléon attacked Russia and decided to evacuate, thousands of thousands French soldiers died due to the lack of salt. Without salt, they couldn’t make disinfection to disinfect the casualty, which made people easily infected to die. Thus salt is just like “the white golden in the loess” and its precious value causes all countries desire to take the important resource, even though by force.

玻利維亞位在南美洲的中心位置,在一百多年前數次戰爭失敗後,接二連三喪失了濱海的土地,成為南美唯一的內陸國,幸好其東南部、名列世界最大的 Salar de Uyuni 鹽湖 (面積 10582 KM²,海拔 3650M,鹽層平均深度 121M,鹵水濃度 80~1150 ppm,平均 321 ppm,估計含鋰550 萬噸) 提供玻國取之不盡、用之不竭的鹽, 讓它雖無地利出海,也不至缺鹽斷了生路,而其映著藍天、如夢似影的鹽湖特殊景致更成為目前南美觀光的熱門景點之ㄧ。
Bolivia is located in the center of South America. It continually lost the lands by the sea and become the only one landlocked country in the S.A., after several failure battles around one hundred years ago. Luckily Salar de Uyuni (the area is 10582 KM², height is 3650M, the depth of salt layer is 121M, brine concentration is 80~1150 ppm, average brine concentration is 321ppm) located in its southern and eastern part, the largest salt lake in the world, provides the bottomless salt to it. Nowadays the special scene of salt lake has become the most popular sightseeing spot in the South America.



Salar de Uyuni photos are provided by Vincent (Lots of thanks)

在波利維亞簽證想辦又一直被拒的狀況下,我們已開始抱著最壞打算,擬定相關波國景點的替代方案。所以將原本Rurrenabaque 的亞馬遜河之旅改為秘魯的 Iquito,Salar de Uyuni 鹽湖之旅改為阿根廷的 Salinas Grandes,Potosi 的礦坑之旅也改為智利 Calama 的, 事事豈能盡如人意,但若不懂得隨機應變只會令人愈加沮喪。
We started to draw up the alternative plans of scene spots in Bolivia under the conditions of continually getting refused in applying Bolivia visa. Thus the location of Amazon River tour was firstly changed to Iquito of Peru from Rurrenabaque, the location of salt lake tour was secondly changed to Salinas Grandes of Argentina from Salar de Uyuni, and the location of mineral tour was thirdly changed to Calama of Chile from Potosi. Not everything can be smoothly implemented by original plan, so it would make people much depressed if they don’t know how to act according to the circumstances.


2008 年 5 月 13 日,在遊覽完阿根廷 Purmamarca 七彩山後,我們便與兩位來自美國的女孩一同租了輛計程車前往 Salinas Grandes 一探鹽湖之美。這是條連續迂迴向上的山路,此段路最高點為 4170M,我們抵達時臉不紅、氣不喘,似乎早已習慣南美高原的高度壓力。我們忽然明瞭原來存在於大自然中的地勢壓力就像是充斥於我們日常生活間的無形壓力,都是需要歷經一連串的挑戰、克服,才能逐步適應並含笑迎接它的。
After a short hiking in the seven-colour mountain in Purmamarca of Argentina. we took taxi to Salinas Grandes to visit the beauty of salt lake with two American girls on 13th of May, 2008. Although this route is circuitous and up, we felt very comfortable when we arrived in its highest point, 4170M. It seemed we had got used to the altitude pressure in the highlands of South America. Suddenly we found that the altitude pressure in the nature is like the invisible pressure in our daily life, both of them need to be challenged and overcome, then we can gradually adjust and greet them with smile.


Salinas Grandes 面積 8290KM²,高度約 3436M,形成原因可能是因為因氣候變化、地殼變動,使一大片水域或海水被陸地所封閉,而成為內陸鹹水湖,海水再經陽光曝曬、長期蒸發濃縮成鹽湖。當我們越來越靠近這一塊放眼望去只有藍與白的兩極世界,內心的興奮真是難以形容。
The area and height of Salinas Grandes are 8290KM² and 3464M. The salty lake’s formation could result from the climatic fluctuation and spatial variations. Due to that, a water area was locked by lands and finally became to an inland salty lake. The lake was getting dried and condensed to a salt lake after a long-term evaporation. When we were approaching the pure blue and white world, we feel excited extremely and unspeakably.



我們迫不及待的跳下車,在這白到眼睛快睜不開,藍到心情應該不再 blue 的地方盡情拍照,然而當越走越靠近內陸,我們發現遠方有身著長袖長褲、頭戴帽子、臉帶面罩,把全身上下都包裹很好的一群人,正在烈日 (平均溫度應該有 40 度 C 以上吧) 下拿著鏟子、揮舞著鋤頭辛苦的工作著,他們默默勞動的身影與一旁嘻笑玩樂的我們形成極大的反差,如果說這個世界有沉默的時候,也許就是在這一刻吧!
We jumped out of the taxi in haste and tried to take photos as many as we can. In this place, the colour for us is too white to open eyes and is too blue to feel blue. However, when we walked further, we found there were some people wearing the long-sleeve clothes, trousers, face mask, and hats working hard under the burning sun (The average temperature should be more than 40C). A huge contrast was formed between their quiet work figures and our high jinks. If there is any silent time in the world, it may be the moment.

當我們靠近他們想捕捉其飽經風霜的面孔與形影時,有人抬起頭來,對我們搖了搖手,拒絕我們的拍攝,但不懂事的我們還是將他們拍下,在一連串相機卡卡的快門聲中,不知帶給他們內心世界多少的波動?誰想在這樣的天候工作?誰想在這樣的情況下留影?我們不禁懷疑上天為何賜給人類這麼美麗的風景,卻要人們在如此惡劣的環境求生存,而這裡也僅是冰山的一角...此時腦中忽然想起沁涼的可口可樂,真應該帶幾瓶來請這些人解解渴的。
When we closed them and wanted to capture their weather-beaten faces and figures, someone lifted up his head and refused our photography by waving their hands. But we still took some photos for them without caring about their feeling. Under a series of the sound of camera shutter, we didn’t know how much influence we had given them. Who wants to work in the dirty weather? Who wants to be taken photos in the bad situation? We couldn’t help thinking why the god gives human the gorgeous scenery, but asks them to make a living in the hard environment. In particular, it is just the tip of iceberg. At this moment, the very cold coca cola suddenly occurred to us. Why didn’t we bring some before we came, so that we could treat these workers that?


我們開始想像,不然發明機器人來這邊工作好了,但機器人能否抵抗鹽的侵蝕而不故障,那...那...那該如何是好呢?我們竟然連一個辦法也想不出來,最後,我們只有帶著無能為力的心情離開這片高山鹽湖的美麗與哀愁。
We started to imagine that maybe we can invent robots to work here, but are these robots able to avoid the corrosion of salt to keep operating well and normally? What can we do after all? To our surprise, we could not come up with any proper idea. Finally what we could do was to bring our helpless feeling to leave the beauty and sadness of the salt lake.

上車時,與我們結伴前來的兩位美國女孩愛不釋手的看著她們在此僅有的一個"攤販"買的石雕,我們好奇的湊過去看,發現上面的駱馬、太陽、仙人掌等圖案真的是相當吸引人。我們探出窗外看著那位同樣把自己包著緊緊的雕刻師傅,正專心低著頭一筆一畫的刻著可能為他賺進生活費的作品。我們真後悔,剛剛為何只顧玩樂沒去欣賞師傅的手藝,也許可以順便替自己買個純手工紀念品,也許可以間接幫助了高原上的一家人,也許我們原本不忍的心可以因此稍感安慰...
When we hoped in the taxi, we found that the two American girls were looking at the stone carvings they bought from the only one vendor here. The patterns including vicuna, sun and cactus etc. in the carvings are really appealing. We watched the master outside the window who was concentrating on creating a new work. We regretted that why we only spent time in taking photos just now instead of appreciating the master’s handicraft. Maybe we could buy some manual souvenirs for ourselves and friends; maybe we could indirectly help a family in the highland and could get a bit comfort with the purchase…



◎ Salinas Grandes 資訊小站:
1) Bus Ticket to Purmamarca from Salta via Evelia : around 1 ~ 1.5 hrs, Peso $ 7.5 (阿根廷幣)
2) Taxi to Salt Field of Salinas Grandes: around 1 hr, Peso $ 30/ per person (one taxi needs to collect 4 people in total and then it will go.)

1 Comments:

laimikis 提到...

Hello, Jess :)

Thank you for the comment,
you left at Laimikis blog :)

the images in your blog are so beautiful (and i thought of some of my colleagues, who studied Chinese language: your blog is a perfect way to practice in reading:)

Please feel free to use the images;
the only thing is to note the author of the images: ollka (she provided them for laimikis blog).

best wishes from Lithuania :)